Exclusion from participation
in institutional, social, cultural and political ties in society or
from the access to societal resources available to the average person.
It implies exclusion from the notion of full citizenship, defined in
terms of income, health, housing, social contacts, education and paid
work. Racism, sexism, homophobia, xenophobia and poverty are all included
in social exclusion.
minority groups, guest workers, refugees, the homeless, people who are
ill, disabled or emotionally vulnerable, such as former residents of
childrens homes, prisons and psychiatric hospitals are particularly
vulnerable to social exclusion. Their children are likely to be at special
risk. The racism, discrimination and hostility that they often face
may harm their health. Those with physical or mental health problems
often have difficulty gaining an adequate education or earning a living.
Disabled children are most likely to live in poverty. Stigmatizing conditions
such as mental illness, physical disability or diseases such as AIDS
makes matters worse. Homeless people, who may experience a combination
of these problems, suffer the highest rates of premature death. Material
deprivation and the social and psychological problems of living in poverty
are considered a form of social exclusion (see also, low
As described above,
social exclusion can take a variety of forms. The Work Group decided
that prevention efforts should be focused on institutional racism.
Institutional racism is the collective and historical failure of an
organization to provide an appropriate and professional service to people
because of their color, culture or ethnic origin.