San Francisco Burden of Disease & Injury Study:
Determinants of Health
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Health Effects of Diabetes

Cardiovascular disease is the primary complication and cause of death among those with type 2 diabetes. For this reason, the American College of Physicians recommends that all patients with type 2 diabetes receive lipid-lowering therapy regardless of serum cholesterol (patient summary, with links to guideline & related literature review). In a similar vein, recent hypertension guidelines call for more aggressive treatment of hypertension in diabetics.

Diabetic nephropathy (kidney disease) is the single most common of kidney failure.

Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema (eye diseases) are leading causes of blindness.

Vascular problems leading to amputation are, unfortunately, not uncommon complications of type 2 diabetes.

Because of the specter of all these complications, diabetes needs to be well managed. From a healthcare delivery standpoint, diabetic patients are twice as costly to manage as non-diabetic patients.




Contribution to overall disease burden in SF

Downstream (health consequences)

Upstream causes

What can be done?

Web resources

MEDLINE strategies

Updated May 19, 2004

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